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Clinical Insights

Interpreting results with GLI-2012 using Z-score and LLN

Predicted LLN and Z-Score

Results of spirometric tests characteristically lead to values for FVC and FEV1 which are too low rather than too high in disease.

This explains why the LLN is defined as that value which identifies the lower 5th percentile of a healthy population of non-smokers.

If a patient has an FEV1 MEASURED = LLN, it means that he is at the limit of the 5th percentile.
Only 5% of the healthy population, with his own anthropometric data, has a lower value.

Therefore 5% of the healthy population represents false positives, ie healthy subjects having values below the LLN and then, at first sight, could be considered sicks!

There are two methods of comparison MEASURED vs PREDICTED.

1) CLASSIC: %PREDICTED =
MEASURED / PREDICTED x 100

2) NEW: Z–SCORE =
(MEASURED – PREDICTED) / STANDARD DEVIATION

In the dogs example, for simplifying we assume that the PREDICTED value of the height is equal to the MEAN value.

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GLI-2012 predicted values for spirometry 3-95 year age range

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